Ka'ida da halaye na jami'ai masu hura abubuwa masu guba

Hakanan za'a iya raba wakilai masu busa sinadarai zuwa manyan nau'ikan biyu: sunadarai masu rai da sunadaran inorganic. Akwai nau'ikan abubuwa masu yawa na busa kayan sunadarai, yayin da mahaukatan busa sinadarai ke da iyaka. Farkon wakilai masu busa iska (kusan 1850) sun kasance masu sauƙin carbonate da bicarbonates. Wadannan sunadarai suna fitar da CO2 lokacin da suke zafi, kuma daga karshe ana maye gurbinsu da cakuda bicarbonate da citric acid saboda na biyun yana da sakamako mafi kyau na hangen nesa. Yau mafi kyaun wakilan kumfa masu ingancin tsari suna da mahimmin tsari iri ɗaya na sama. Su polycarbonates ne (asalinsu shine Poly-carbonic
acid) hade da carbonates.

Bazuwar polycarbonate wani aiki ne na ƙarshe, a 320 ° F
Ana iya sakin kusan 100cc a kowane gram na acid. Lokacin da hagu da dama CO2 ya ƙara zafin wuta zuwa kusan 390 ° F, za a saki ƙarin gas. Yanayin yanayi na wannan yanayin bazuwar na iya kawo wasu fa'idodi, saboda watsewar zafi yayin aikin kumfa babbar matsala ce. Baya ga kasancewa tushen gas don kumfa, ana amfani da waɗannan abubuwa sau da yawa azaman wakilan ƙwayoyin cuta don wakilan kumfa na zahiri. An yi imanin cewa ƙwayoyin farko da aka ƙirƙira lokacin da wakilin hura sinadarai ya ba da wuri don ƙaurawar iskar gas ɗin da wakili mai busa jiki yake fitarwa.

Akasin wakilan kumfa marasa tsari, akwai nau'ikan nau'ikan kumfa masu guba da za a iya zaɓa daga, kuma siffofin jikinsu ma sun bambanta. A cikin fewan shekarun da suka gabata, an kimanta ɗaruruwan ƙwayoyin sunadarai waɗanda za a iya amfani da su azaman wakilai masu busawa. Hakanan akwai sharuda da yawa da ake amfani dasu don yanke hukunci. Mafi mahimmancin su shine: a ƙarƙashin yanayin saurin sarrafawa da zafin jiki da ake iya faɗi, adadin gas ɗin da aka saki bawai kawai babba ba ne, amma kuma za'a iya sake fitarwa; gas da daskararren da aikin ya samar basu da guba, kuma yana da kyau ga kumfa polymerization. Abubuwan dole ne su sami mummunan tasiri, kamar launi ko wari mara kyau; a ƙarshe, akwai batun farashi, wanda kuma mahimmin ma'auni ne. Wadancan wakilan kumfa da aka yi amfani da su a cikin masana'antar yau sun fi dacewa da waɗannan ƙa'idodin.

An zaɓi waken kumfa mai ƙarancin zafin jiki daga wadatattun wakilan kumfa masu sinadarai. Babbar matsalar da za a yi la’akari da ita ita ce, zafin yanayin bazuwar wakili na kumfa ya kamata ya dace da zazzabin sarrafa filastik. Anyi amfani da abubuwa huɗu masu hura ƙwayoyin cuta masu yaduwa don ƙananan polyvinyl chloride, ƙananan polyethylene da wasu ƙwayoyin epoxy. Na farko shine toluene sulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). Wannan shine hoda mai ruwan hoda mai zafin jiki mai ruɓewa kusan 110 ° C. Kowane gram yana samar da kusan 115cc na nitrogen da wasu danshi. Nau'in na biyu shi ne haƙarƙarin bis (benzenesulfonyl), ko OBSH. Ana iya amfani da wannan wakilin kumfa mai yawa a cikin aikace-aikacen ƙananan zafin jiki. Wannan kayan shine farar mai laushi mai kyau kuma yawan zafin yanayin bazuwar sa shine 150 ° C. Idan anyi amfani da wani mai kunnawa kamar urea ko triethanolamine, wannan zazzabin zai iya raguwa zuwa kusan 130 ° C. Kowane gram na iya fitar da gas 125cc, galibi nitrogen. Samfurin mai ƙarfi bayan bazuwar na OBSH polymer ne. Idan ana amfani dashi tare da TSH, zai iya rage wari.

Wakilin kumfa mai yawan zafin jiki Don robobi masu tsananin zafin jiki, kamar ABS mai jure zafi, tsayayyen polyvinyl chloride, wasu ƙananan narkewar polypropylene da robobin injiniyoyi, kamar polycarbonate da nailan, kwatanta amfani da abubuwa masu hurawa tare da yanayin yanayin bazuwar yanayin da ya dace. Toluenesulfonephthalamide (TSS ko TSSC) wani farin fure ne mai kyau ƙwarai tare da zafin zafin jiki na kimanin 220 ° C da kuma samar da gas na 140cc a kowace gram. Yawanci shine cakuda nitrogen da CO2, tare da ƙarami kaɗan na CO da ammoniya. Ana amfani da wannan waken busawa a cikin polypropylene da wasu ABS. Amma saboda zafin yanayin bazuwar sa, aikin sa a cikin polycarbonate yana da iyaka. Wani wakili mai hurawar zafin-mai-tetrazole mai lamba 5 (5-PT) an yi nasarar amfani dashi a cikin polycarbonate. Yana fara narkewa sannu a hankali game da 215 ° C, amma samar da iskar gas ba babba. Ba za a saki babban gas ba har sai yawan zafin jiki ya kai 240-250 ° C, kuma wannan yanayin zafin jikin ya dace sosai da sarrafa polycarbonate. Samun gas yayi kusan
175cc / g, yawanci nitrogen. Kari akan haka, akwai wasu abubuwan tetrazole wadanda suke karkashin cigaba. Suna da yanayin zafin yanayi mafi girma kuma suna fitar da iskar gas sama da 5-PT.

Zafin zafin aiki na mafi yawan masana'antar thermoplastics na azodicarbonate kamar yadda aka bayyana a sama. Yanayin zafin jiki na aiki na mafi yawan polyolefin, polyvinyl chloride da kuma zafin thermoplastics shine 150-210 ° C
. Ga irin wannan filastik, akwai wani nau'in busa ƙaho wanda yake amintacce don amfani, wato, azodicarbonate, wanda aka fi sani da azodicarbonamide, ko ADC ko AC a taƙaice. A cikin tsarkakakken halinsa, yana da hoda / ruwan hoda a kusan 200 ° C
Fara lalatawa, kuma yawan gas da aka samar yayin bazuwar shine
220cc / g, gas din da aka samar yafi nitrogen da CO, tare da karamin CO2, kuma shima yana dauke da ammonia a karkashin wasu yanayi. A m bazuwar samfurin ne m. Ba za a iya amfani da shi kawai azaman alama don cikakkun ruɓan ba, amma kuma ba shi da wani tasiri a kan launi na filastik mai iska.

AC ta zama waken kumfa mai yaduwa don dalilai da yawa. Dangane da samar da iskar gas, AC na ɗaya daga cikin mahimman kumfa masu kumfa, kuma gas ɗin da yake fitarwa yana da ingancin kumfa mai yawa. Bugu da ƙari, ana sakin gas da sauri ba tare da rasa iko ba. AC da samfuran samfuranta abubuwa ne masu ƙananan guba. AC shima ɗayan wakilai ne masu arha na iska mai arha, ba kawai daga ingancin samar da gas a kowane gram ba, har ma daga samar da gas a kowace dala yana da arha sosai.

Baya ga dalilan da ke sama, ana iya amfani da AC ko'ina saboda halaye masu lalacewa. Za'a iya canza zafin jiki da saurin gas da aka saki, kuma za'a iya daidaita shi zuwa 150-200 ° C
Kusan dukkanin dalilai a cikin ikon. Kunnawa, ko ƙarin kayan aiki sun canza halaye masu narkewa na wakilan busa sinadarai, an tattauna wannan matsalar ta amfani da OBSH a sama. AC tana kunnawa sosai fiye da kowane wakili mai busa sinadarai. Akwai nau'ikan addittu, da farko dai, gishirin karfe yana iya rage zafin jiki na bazuwar AC, kuma digirin raguwa ya dogara ne da nau'in da adadin abubuwan da aka zaɓa. Kari akan haka, wadannan karin kayan suna da sauran illoli, kamar canza saurin sakin gas; ko ƙirƙirar jinkiri ko lokacin shigarwa kafin fara narkewar yanayin. Sabili da haka, kusan dukkanin hanyoyin sakin gas a cikin aikin ana iya tsara su ta wucin gadi.

Girman ƙwayoyin AC kuma yana shafar aikin bazuwar. Gabaɗaya magana, a yanayin zafin jiki da aka bayar, mafi girman matsakaicin girman kwayar halitta, jinkirin sakin iskar gas. Wannan sabon abu ya bayyana a fili cikin tsarin tare da masu kunnawa. A saboda wannan dalili, yawan adadin kasuwancin AC na kasuwanci shine micron 2-20 ko mafi girma, kuma mai amfani zai iya zaɓar yadda yake so. Yawancin masu sarrafawa sun haɓaka tsarin kunnawa nasu, kuma wasu masana'antun suna zaɓar cakuda daban-daban waɗanda aka kunna ta hanyar masana'antun AC. Akwai masu karfafawa da yawa, musamman waɗanda aka yi amfani dasu don polyvinyl chloride, kuma wasu launuka zasu yi aiki azaman masu kunnawa don AC. Sabili da haka, dole ne ku yi taka-tsantsan yayin canza tsarin, saboda halaye na lalacewar AC na iya canzawa daidai.

AC da ke cikin masana'antar yana da maki da yawa, ba wai kawai dangane da girman ƙwaya da tsarin kunnawa ba, har ma dangane da ruwa. Misali, anara wani ƙari akan AC na iya ƙara ruwa da watsawar ƙurar AC. Irin wannan AC ɗin ya dace da PVC plastisol. Saboda waken kumfa za'a iya tarwatsa shi a cikin plastisol, wannan shine batun mahimmanci don ingancin samfurin filastik mai ƙyama. Baya ga yin amfani da maki tare da kyakkyawan ruwa, ana iya watsa AC a cikin phthalate ko wasu tsarin jigilar kayayyaki. Zai zama mai sauƙin riƙewa kamar ruwa.


Post lokaci: Jan-13-2021